Kaposi sarcoma aids

09.03.2021 Comments

Kaposi's sarcoma is a type of cancer that forms in the lining of blood and lymph vessels. The tumors lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma typically appear as painless purplish spots on the legs, feet or face. Lesions can also appear in the genital area, mouth or lymph nodes.

In severe Kaposi's sarcoma, lesions may develop in the digestive tract and lungs. The underlying cause of Kaposi's sarcoma is infection with a virus called human herpesvirus 8 HHV In healthy people, HHV-8 infection usually causes no symptoms because the immune system keeps it under control. In people with weakened immune systems, however, HHV-8 has the potential to trigger Kaposi's sarcoma.

Through unknown mechanisms, the characteristic lesions form. Recipients of organ transplants who take immune system-suppressing drugs to prevent transplant rejection also are at risk of Kaposi's sarcoma.

Kaposi's Sarcoma

In this population, though, the disease tends to be milder and easier to control than it is in people with AIDS. Known as classic Kaposi's sarcoma, this cancer progresses slowly and typically causes few serious problems.

To determine if a suspicious-looking skin lesion is Kaposi's sarcoma, your doctor will need to perform a biopsy, which involves removing a small piece of tissue for examination in a laboratory.

kaposi sarcoma aids

Bronchoscopy is unnecessary for diagnosis of Kaposi's sarcoma unless you have unexplained breathing problems or an abnormal chest X-ray. Similarly, unless a fecal occult blood test finds blood in your stool, you may be able to avoid upper endoscopy or colonoscopy. Sometimes, this is the only treatment needed. When possible, people with transplant-related Kaposi's sarcoma may be able to stop taking immune system-suppressing medication. This allows the immune system to eliminate the cancer in some cases.

Switching to a different immunosuppressive medication can also bring improvement. Lesions treated in any of these ways are likely to return within a couple of years. When this happens, treatment can often be repeated. Radiation is the usual treatment for those with multiple skin lesions. The type of radiation used and the locations of lesions being treated vary from person to person.

When more than 25 lesions are present, chemotherapy with standard anti-cancer drugs may be helpful. Chemotherapy is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma in the lymph nodes and digestive tract.Kaposi's sarcoma KS is a type of cancer that can form masses in the skinlymph nodesor other organs. Four sub-types are described: classic, endemic, immunosuppression therapy-related, and epidemic.

Treatment is based on the sub-type, whether the condition is localized or widespread, and the person's immune function. KS lesions are nodules or blotches that may be red, purple, brown, or black, and are usually papular.

They are typically found on the skin, but spread elsewhere is common, especially the mouth, gastrointestinal tract and respiratory tract. Growth can range from very slow to explosively fast, and is associated with significant mortality and morbidity.

The lesions are painless, but become cosmetically disfiguring or interruptive to organs. Commonly affected areas include the lower limbsback, face, mouth, and genitalia. The lesions are usually as described above, but may occasionally be plaque -like often on the soles of the feet or even involved in skin breakdown with resulting fungating lesions.

Associated swelling may be from either local inflammation or lymphoedema obstruction of local lymphatic vessels by the lesion. Skin lesions may be quite disfiguring for the sufferer, and a cause of much psychosocial pathology. In the mouth, the hard palate is most frequently affected, followed by the gums. Involvement can be common in those with transplant-related or AIDS-related KS, and it may occur in the absence of skin involvement.

Involvement of the airway can present with shortness of breath, fevercoughcoughing up blood or chest pain, or as an incidental finding on chest x-ray. Kaposi's sarcoma of the lung has a poor prognosis.

Thus, kissing is a theoretical risk factor for transmission.

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Higher rates of transmission among gay and bisexual men have been attributed to "deep kissing" sexual partners with KSHV. Prudent advice is to use commercial lubricants when needed and avoid deep kissing with partners with KSHV infection or whose status is unknown. KSHV is also transmissible via organ transplantation [21] and blood transfusion.

Despite its name, in general it is not considered a true sarcoma[23] [24] which is a tumor arising from mesenchymal tissue. The histogenesis of KS remains controversial. KS lesions contain tumor cells with a characteristic abnormal elongated shape, called spindle cells. The most typical feature of Kaposi sarcoma is the presence of spindle cells forming slits containing red blood cells. Mitotic activity is only moderate and pleomorphism is usually absent. Inflammation around the tumor may produce swelling and pain.

Variously sized PAS positive hyaline bodies are often seen in the cytoplasm or sometimes extracellularly. The spindle cells of Kaposi sarcoma differentiate toward endothelial cellsprobably of lymph vessel rather than blood vessel origin. Micrograph of promontory sign in Kaposi's sarcoma in patch stage.

Dilated irregular vascular channels surround a pre-existing vessel. Micrograph of plaque stage, with bizarre vessels dissecting the upper dermis.

There is erythrocyte extravasation and hemosiderin pigmentation. Micrograph of tumor stage. Well-circumscribed spindle-cell tumor. Erythrocytes lie within poorly defined slit-like vascular spaces. Although KS may be suspected from the appearance of lesions and the patient's risk factors, definite diagnosis can be made only by biopsy and microscopic examination. In differential diagnosis, arteriovenous malformationspyogenic granuloma and other vascular proliferations can be microscopically confused with KS.

Source: [30]. HHV-8 is responsible for all varieties of KS.Medically reviewed by Drugs. Last updated on May 20, Kaposi's sarcoma is a type of cancer caused by the virus human herpes virus 8.

The tumors appear as red or purple patches on the skin, mouth, lungs, liver, or gastrointestinal tract. First described inKaposi's sarcoma was considered rare and relatively harmless until the AIDS epidemic began. An aggressive form of the disease, AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma, occurs in people with severely weakened immune systems. It is now the most common type of Kaposi's sarcoma. Classic Kaposi's sarcoma. This is a rare, slow growing skin tumor, usually affecting males of Italian or Eastern European Jewish ancestry.

People with this form of the disease may develop non-Hodgkin lymphoma or another cancer before the skin lesions appear or later in life.

African Kaposi's sarcoma. Although extremely rare in the rest of the world, the disease occurs more often in young males in certain African countries.

Usually it is a slow-growing tumor, but in some cases, it can be aggressive, invading bone and tissue under the skin. Immunosuppressive-treatment-related Kaposi's sarcoma. People who are taking immunosuppressive medication after an organ transplant may develop this form of the disease.

It sometimes improves if the medication is reduced or changed. AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma. It usually appears as a rapidly progressing tumor affecting the skin, lymph nodes, gastrointestinal tract, lungs, liver, or spleen. Nearly all cases involve homosexual or bisexual men. The first symptoms of Kaposi's sarcoma are usually red, purple, or brown patches, plaques, or nodules on the skin.

Kaposi's sarcoma

The abnormal growth of small blood vessels just below the skin gives the lesions their purplish hue. They may look like bruises. In the classic, African, and immunosuppressive forms of the disease, the lesions usually grow slowly and develop over years. As the disease worsens, the legs may swell.

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In some cases, it will spread to other organs. In the AIDS-related form, the cancer is much more aggressive, often growing to cover large areas and forming tumor-like masses.

These lesions are usually soft and spongy at first, but they become hard and solid over time. The surface of the tumor may develop open ulcers that can become infected.

AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely confined to the skin. It often affects the mouth, lymph nodes, lungs, liver, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. When the tumor involves the lungs, it often causes coughing, shortness of breath, and wheezing. The disease often progresses rapidly in the lungs. It may cause respiratory failure, which can be fatal. When the disease involves the gastrointestinal tract, it rarely causes symptoms until it becomes very advanced.

People may then develop symptoms of intestinal obstruction nausea, vomiting, and abdominal pain or bloody stools. If the lymph nodes become involved, severe swelling can occur, usually in the legs or face. If your doctor suspects Kaposi's sarcoma, he or she will ask if you have HIV or another disease that may be suppressing your immune system.

Kaposi's sarcoma can be confirmed with a biopsy.Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer? Kaposi sarcoma KS is a cancer that develops from the cells that line lymph or blood vessels.

It usually appears as tumors on the skin or on mucosal surfaces such as inside the mouth, but these tumors can also develop in other parts of the body, such as in the lymph nodes bean-sized collections of immune cells throughout the bodythe lungs, or digestive tract. The abnormal cells of KS form purple, red, or brown blotches or tumors on the skin. These affected areas are called lesions. The skin lesions of KS most often show on the legs or face.

They may look bad, but they usually cause no symptoms. Some lesions on the legs or in the groin area may cause the legs and feet to swell painfully. KS can cause serious problems or even become life threatening when the lesions are in the lungs, liver, or digestive tract.

KS in the digestive tract, for example, can cause bleeding, while tumors in the lungs may cause trouble breathing. There are four different types of KS defined by the different populations it develops in, but the changes within the KS cells are very similar.

HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. A person infected with HIV someone who is HIV-positive does not necessarily have AIDS, but the virus can be present in the body for a long time, often many years, before causing major illness.

The disease known as AIDS begins when the virus has seriously damaged a person's immune system, which means they can get certain types of infections such as Kaposi sarcoma--associated herpesvirus, KSHV or other medical complications, including KS.

kaposi sarcoma aids

Classic KS is more common in men than in women. People typically have one or more lesions on the legs, ankles, or the soles of their feet. Compared to other types of KS, the lesions in this type do not grow as quickly, and new lesions do not develop as often.

The immune system of people with classic KS is not as weak as it is in those who have epidemic KS, but it may be weaker than normal. Getting older can naturally weaken the immune system a little. Kaposi sarcoma--associated herpesvirus KSHV infection is much more common in Africa than in other parts of the world, so the risk of KS is higher. Other factors in Africa that weaken the immune system such as malaria, other chronic infections, and malnutrition also probably contribute to the development of KS, since the disease affects a broader group of people that includes children and women.

Endemic KS tends to occur in younger people usually under age Rarely a more aggressive form of endemic KS is seen in children before puberty.

This type usually affects lymph nodes and other organs and can progress quickly. When KS develops in people whose immune systems have been suppressed after an organ transplant, it is called iatrogenicor transplant-related KS. Most transplant patients need to take drugs to keep their immune system from rejecting attacking the new organ. Stopping the immune-suppressing drugs or lowering their dose often makes KS lesions go away or get smaller.Please understand that our phone lines must be clear for urgent medical care needs.

When this changes, we will update this web site. Please know that our vaccine supply is extremely small. Kaposi sarcoma is a disease in which cancer cells are found in the skin or mucous membranes that line the gastrointestinal GI tract, from mouth to anus, including the stomach and intestines.

Kaposi sarcoma is more common in men and in patients with suppressed immune systems. Kaposi sarcoma is always caused by an infection with a virus called human herpesvirus 8, which is also known as Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus KSHV. The virus, which is in the same family as Epstein-Barr virus, is rare in the United States. In fact, less than 1 percent of the general U. The virus and the tumor are much more common in some other parts of the world. How the virus is initially acquired and spread is poorly understood, but scientists have identified four distinct populations that represent nearly all cases of the disease.

There is some evidence within those populations as to how KSHV is acquired and what causes some carriers to develop Kaposi sarcoma. However, most people who have the virus will never get Kaposi sarcoma. The cancer is usually triggered by a weakened immune system in people who are HIV-positive, who have received an organ transplant or whose immune systems are weakened for other reasons, including age.

Kaposi sarcoma occurs in four different settings. The approach to treatment depends in part on the setting in which the tumor occurs. Among HIV-positive individuals, it appears that men who have sex with other men are more likely to get Kaposi sarcoma, probably because KSHV is more common in this population.

While experts presume that there is some sexual transmission of the virus, it is generally detected in saliva rather than semen. At the worst point, the incidence of disease was 47 per cases per year for every 1 million people. Individuals with HIV had a 50 percent chance of developing the disease. Since then, Kaposi sarcoma has become less common, yielding about 6 cases per 1 million people each year.

Antiretroviral treatment in HIV-positive patients has helped control and prevent the disease. These areas of the world have a much greater incidence of KSHV. As in other types of Kaposi sarcoma, experts believe that classic Kaposi tumors emerge as a result of a compromised immune system. Although these men may have carried the virus their entire lives, the cancer develops in the setting of a natural, age-related decline in immune function.

In some areas of Equatorial Africa, a high percentage of the population may be infected with KSHV and therefore have a greater risk of developing Kaposi sarcoma. Once again, medical experts think that the virus is being spread mostly through saliva transmission from mother to child. Women and children are also being affected. Most patients receiving an organ or bone marrow transplant must take immunosuppressant drugs to keep their immune system from attacking the transplanted organ.

But if an immunosuppressed transplant patient is already infected with KSHV, they have the potential to develop Kaposi sarcoma. Getting a transplant in a country where KSHV is more common e.

The disease has become so rare in the United States that not every doctor has seen it. Its rarity can lead to patients being seen by multiple doctors before getting a diagnosis.

kaposi sarcoma aids

As with all cancers, early diagnosis can improve outcomes and lessen the risk of the disease spreading to other organs. If you have signs of Kaposi sarcoma, a doctor will do a physical examination of your skin, mouth and rectum. The doctor will also check your lymph nodes.I can help you with your question.

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